You are here

Harvard Forest Data Archive


Harvard Forest Herbarium Database from 1908 to Present

Related Publications



  • Lead: Jerry Jenkins, Glenn Motzkin
  • Investigators:
  • Contact: Information Manager
  • Start date: 1908
  • End date: 2009
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Harvard Forest
  • Latitude: +42.44 to +42.55
  • Longitude: -72.23 to -72.16
  • Elevation: 208 to 417 meter
  • Taxa:
  • Release date: 2009
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.117.17
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • EDI: data package
  • DataONE: data package
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: biodiversity studies
  • LTER core area: populations
  • Keywords: habitats, history, plant species, vegetation dynamics
  • Abstract:

    As a part of the broader Harvard Forest Flora project (see data set HF116), we prepared a database of all specimens located in the Harvard Forest herbarium.

  • Methods:

    Historic Flora

    As part of our efforts to determine the species that have occurred at Harvard Forest historically, we conducted a comprehensive review of all herbarium specimens in the Harvard Forest herbarium. Prior to our study, the HF Herbarium included more than 2,300 specimens collected in or near Harvard Forest, more than 85% of which were collected in the first half of the 20th century, primarily during three periods: 1908-1913 (~ 10% of specimens), 1928-34 (~35%), and 1947-1949 (~45%). We also searched regional herbaria (HUH, MASS) for specimens from HF, and located ~ 180 C. E. Smith Jr. specimens collected at HF in 1947 in the Brandeis University Archives. This collection has since been generously donated to HF, incorporated into the Harvard Forest Herbarium, and included in this database. In August 2007, when we were nearing completion of this project, we located an additional ~1400 unmounted specimens collected at or near Harvard Forest prior to 1950 that were apparently held in the personal collection of Hugh Raup and subsequently stored at HF for an unknown period of years or decades. This collection included: ~ 350 "new" specimens (i.e., non-duplicates of specimens in the HFH) from the collectors that were active in 1908-1913 and 1928-1934, ~ 450 specimens collected by H. M. Raup and others that were duplicates of specimens in the HF herbarium, ~ 170 "new" H. M. Raup specimens collected in 1937-1938, and more than 400 "new" specimens collected by K. A. Raup in 1947. Specimens of species that were otherwise undocumented from Harvard Forest, as well as specimens that represent the earliest records for a species from Harvard Forest, were mounted and entered into the HF herbarium, and these records were included in all data analyses. Unmounted duplicates of specimens in the HFH (identified by specimen number) and specimens of common species for which we had other herbarium specimens were discarded.

    All specimens in the Harvard Forest herbarium were verified to correct taxonomic errors and update nomenclature. Nomenclature follows Sorrie and Somers (1999) or Flora of North America, except where indicated in Jenkins et al. (2008).

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons CC0 1.0 (No Rights Reserved). Please keep the dataset creators informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset should include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Jenkins J, Motzkin G. 2009. Harvard Forest Herbarium Database from 1908 to Present. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF117 (v.17). Environmental Data Initiative:

Detailed Metadata

hf117-01: herbarium

  1. family: families follow Sorrie and Somers (1999)
  2. genus: nomenclature generally follows Sorrie and Somers (1999) or Flora of North America. See HF Annotated Flora for details.
  3. species: somenclature generally follows Sorrie and Somers (1999) or Flora of North America. See HF Annotated Flora for details.
  4. year: year specimen was collected
  5. month: month specimen was collected
  6. day: day specimen was collected
  7. specimen: specimen number as indicated on specimen; blank indicates specimens were not assigned specimen numbers by the collector.
  8. collector: person who collected specimen. The following abbreviations apply for specimens collected in 2004-2007: GM=Glenn Motzkin; KW=Kirsten Ward; JJ or JCJ=Jerry Jenkins. All specimens gathered in 2004 and 2005 (prior to Sept. 2005) were jointly attributed to GM, KW, and JJ.
  9. folder: specimens from Pisgah as well as other areas outside of HF properties in Petersham that are stored in red folders are so indicated. Note: not all specimens from off of HF property are stored in red folders.
  10. town: town in which specimen was collected
  11. state: state in which specimen was collected
  12. tract: HF Tract in which specimen was collected, if applicable
    • PH: Prospect Hill Tract
    • TS: Tom Swamp Tract
    • SC: Slab City Tract
    • Pisgah: Pisgah Tract
    • Simes: Simes Tract
    • Schwarz: Schwarz Tract
    • Higginson: Higginson Tract
    • NA: no data
  13. compartment: HF compartment in which specimen was collected, if applicable
  14. location.notes: location in which specimen was collected
  15. habitat.notes: habitat in which specimen was collected
  16. other.notes: other notes indicated on specimen, or noted during the HF 2004-2007 survey. Changes in identification or nomenclature are noted, and the initials of the person who verified the specimen, and the year the specimen was verified, are listed.
  17. source: source of specimen
    • HF herbarium: specimen was included in HF Herbarium prior to 2004
    • specimen found in 2007: includes specimens collected between 1950 and 2003 that were found in 2007 and that had not been previously incorporated into the HF herbarium
    • Brandeis: specimens were donated to HF in 2007 by Brandeis University Archives, including ~ 180 C.E. Smith Jr. specimens gathered primarily at HF in 1947
    • HF survey 2004-2007: specimen gathered as part of HF Flora Study from 2004-2007
    • non HF; 2000-2007: a small number of specimens from outside of HF were deposited in the HF herbarium during this period
    • pre-1950 specimen found in 2007: in 2007, numerous unmounted specimens collected prior to 1950 were found that had apparently been in storage at HF for many years. All specimens that represented new or first records for HF, as well as other specimens of interest, were mounted and incorporated into the HF herbarium.
    • image of specimen at HUH: scanned images of some HF specimens in the Harvard University Herbaria in Cambridge
    • NA: no data