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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF267

Bird Communities in Forest Openings at Harvard Forest 2014-2015

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: David King
  • Investigators: Patrick Roberts
  • Contact: Patrick Roberts
  • Start date: 2014
  • End date: 2015
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Harvard Forest
  • Latitude: +42.463 to +42.537
  • Longitude: -72.216 to -72.167
  • Elevation:
  • Taxa:
  • Release date: 2016
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.267.2
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • EDI: data package
  • DataONE: data package
  • Related links:
  • Study type: short-term measurement
  • Research topic: biodiversity studies; conservation and management
  • LTER core area: populations, disturbance
  • Keywords: abundance, birds, disturbance, habitats, populations
  • Abstract:

    Currently, many of the most severely declining neotropical migrants in the northeastern United States are disturbance dependent, early-successional species. Much of their decline is attributed to loss of suitable habitat. Large clearcuts (>5.0 ha) are widely considered to be optimal habitat for most shrubland bird species. However, it is well documented that certain species are capable of breeding within significantly smaller patches of habitat (less than 2.0 ha), which are most commonly created through group selection harvest cuttings.

    The goal of this research is to determine habitat characteristics translatable to habitat value for shrubland birds for use in conservation programs to maximize biological value. This research will provide an assessment of the value of forest openings for shrubland birds, helping to define the suitability of forest canopy openings for specific bird species. This project will describe the conservation value of shrubland openings deemed too small to sustain full suites of specialist shrubland birds by providing threshold patch area values for individual species able to use these smaller patches.

  • Methods:

    Each year birds were surveyed 3 times from late May to early July with 10-minute, 50-m radius point counts at the center of each opening. Surveys were conducted by a single observer starting 15 minutes after sunrise and continuing until 1100 hours. Surveys were only conducted on calm days with no precipitation. To minimize bias, visits to each survey point occurred at different times of day and were separated by no less than 7 days. Wind speed (beaufort scale) and cloud cover was recorded before each survey. Location, sex, and detection method of all birds noted during point counts were recorded on scaled orthoimagery. Survey points were visited by at least two technicians during each year in order to reduce observer bias. Fly-overs and birds detected outside of the 50-m radius were not included in the analysis.

    Vegetation structure and composition was measured at 20 random locations within each opening using random bearings and distances (1-25 m). We recorded species and height of the dominant plant species in contact with a 1.5-cm-diameter vertical pole within four height classes: 0-0.5 m, 0.5-1.4 m, 1.4-3.0 m, and greater than 3.0 m.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    King D. 2016. Bird Communities in Forest Openings at Harvard Forest 2014-2015. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF267.

Detailed Metadata

hf267-01: bird survey data

  1. survey.id: unique identifier for each point count survey
  2. year: year
  3. site.id: survey location of ID
    • HP1: 42.504350, -72.213383
    • UH1: 42.536572, -72.191604
    • UH2: 42.533192, -72.183263
    • UH3: 42.546199, -72.173804
    • LH1: 42.481809, -72.171273
    • LH2: 42.472748, -72.167494
    • LH3: 42.463364, -72.168265
  4. rep: survey number
  5. date: date
  6. time: time
  7. datetime: date and time
  8. obs: initials of surveyor
  9. sky: cloud cover
    • 0: no clouds
    • 1: ~50% cloud cover
    • 2: ~100% cloud cover
  10. wind: beaufort wind scale
    • 0: less than 1 knot
    • 1: 1-3 knotes
    • 2: 4-6 knots
    • 3: 7-10 knots
    • 4: 11-16 knots
  11. species: common four letter species ID code
    • SCTA: Scarlet Tanager
    • EATO: Eastern Towhee
    • PRAW: Prairie Warbler
    • PIWA: Pine Warbler
    • VEER: Veery
    • GRCA: Gray Catbird
    • LEFL: Least Flycatcher
    • CSWA: Chestnut-sided Warbler
    • BCCH: Black-capped Chickadee
    • MODO: Mourning Dove
    • CEDW: Cedar Waxwing
    • REVI: Red-eyed Vireo
    • COYE: Common Yellowthroat
    • EAWP: Eastern Wood-Pewee
    • YBSA: Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
    • PUFI: Purple Finch
    • BAWW: Black and White Warbler
    • BHCO: Brown-headed Cowbird
    • BLBW: Blackburnian Warbler
    • BLJA: Blue Jay
    • BRCR: Brown Creeper
    • BTBW: Black-throated Blue Warbler
    • BTNW: Black-throated Green Warbler
    • CHSP: Chipping Sparrow
    • CORA: Common Raven
    • DOWO: Downy Woodpecker
    • EAPH: Eastern Phoebe
    • GCFL: Great Crested Flycatcher
    • HAWO: Hairy Woodpecker
    • HETH: Hermit Thrush
    • INBU: Indigo Bunting
    • NOFL: Northern Flicker
    • OVEN: Ovenbird
    • PICIDAE: Picidae
    • PIWO: Pine Warbler
    • RBGR: Rose-breasted Grosbeak
    • CHIPMUNK: Chipmunk
    • AMRO: American Robin
    • RBNU: Red-breasted Nuthatch
    • RTHU: Ruby-throated Hummingbird
    • RUGR: Ruffed Grouse
    • TUTI: Tufted Titmouse
    • WBNU: White-breasted Nuthatch
    • YBCU: Yellow-billed Cuckoo
    • YRWA: Yellow-rumped Warbler
  12. sex: sex of bird
    • M: male
    • F: female
    • U: unknown
  13. detect: how each bird was detected
    • S: song
    • V: visual
    • C: call
    • D: drum or other means
  14. distance: bird distance from observer (meters)
  15. u.50: whether or not bird was within 50 meters
    • N: yes
    • Y: no
  16. location: location of bird
    • Y: inside forest opening shrubs
    • N: outside
    • E: on the edge of opening and forest
  17. inout: whether inside or outside opening
    • 1: inside
    • 0: outside

hf267-02: vegetation data

  1. site.id: survey location of ID
    • HP1: 42.504350, -72.213383
    • UH1: 42.536572, -72.191604
    • UH2: 42.533192, -72.183263
    • UH3: 42.546199, -72.173804
    • LH1: 42.481809, -72.171273
    • LH2: 42.472748, -72.167494
    • LH3: 42.463364, -72.168265
  2. substrate.1: dominant plant species within height class 1 (0-0.5 m)
    • RU: rubus species
    • H: hemlock
    • UNKN: unknown
    • D: dead
    • G: grass
    • F: fern
    • WL: whorled loosestrife
    • DB: dewberry
    • BLUE: blueberry
    • WP: white pine
    • WG: wintergreen
    • RM: red maple
    • BB: black birch
    • BC: black cherry
    • AB: american beech
    • WS: wild sarsaparilla
  3. height.1: height of the dominant plant species within height class 1 (0-0.5 m) (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  4. substrate.2: dominant plant species within height class 2 (0.5-1.4 m)
    • RO: red oak
    • HS: honeysuckle
    • H: hemlock
    • D: dead
    • PC: pin cherry
    • UNKN: unknown
    • BLUE: blueberry
    • RU: rubus species
    • RM: red maple
    • DW: dogwood
    • F: fern
    • SF: sweet fern
    • SUMAC: sumac
    • WP: white pine
    • BB: black birch
    • BC: black cherry
    • N: nettle species
    • UNK: unknown
    • PB: paper birch
    • SM: striped maple
  5. height.2: height of the dominant plant species within height class 2 (0.5-1.4 m) (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. substrate.3: dominant plant species within height class 3 (1.4-3.0 m)
    • CC: choke cherry
    • BH: beaked hazel
    • H: hemlock
    • RM: red maple
    • PC: pin cherry
    • WA: white ash
    • RU: rubus species
    • BC: black cherry
    • RO: red oak
    • WP: white pine
    • BB: black birch
    • AB: american beech
    • D: dead
    • C: cherry
    • SM: striped maple
    • PB: paper birch
  7. height.3: height of the dominant plant species within height class 3 (1.4-3.0 m) (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  8. substrate.4: dominant plant species within height class 4 (>3.0 m)
    • H: hemlock
    • RM: red maple
    • CC: choke cherry
    • PC: pin cherry
    • RO: red oak
    • BB: black birch
    • PB: paper birch
  9. height.4: height of dominant plant species within height class 4 (>3.0 m) (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)